discstatacbronac.gq/faiths-checkbook-a-daily-devotional.php As much as I appreciated them, the red envelopes never gave me the same thrill as the gifts I had to unwrap. At the time, I didn't consider the red envelopes as a tradition to be carried forward. For me, the best part of the holidays are the big feasts. Followed in as a distant second is getting together with loved ones. I'm mostly. I have enjoyed everything from my aunt's Hong Konginspired stir-fried shrimp, to my mom's Western shepherd's pie. Both Chinese and Western dishes were often served at the same time, which made me look forward to Christmas dinner even more.
Food represented an amalgamation of East and West; it was harmonious, and all I knew. A childhood holiday memory that stands out to me quite well is an elementary school performance. Not only because my class gave a spectacular performance worthy of a standing ovation this is how it played out in my mind; don't tell me otherwise , but also because the song we sang was for Kwanzaa. Another class sang a song for Hanukkah.
This was significant, as my school had a fairly multicultural student body. Those who didn't celebrate Christmas, or those who did but deviated from the norm like myself, weren't criticized, though sometimes went unrecognized. My teachers chose to acknowledge, embrace and extend the message of diversity throughout the concert. I learned that it isn't about one culture rising above another; it's about achieving and celebrating a togetherness beyond mere coexistence.
December is here again, and some traditions have faded. I am not home to decorate the tree, and we lost the nutcracker a long time ago. But some traditions have held steady. I will still engage in Christmas shopping madness.
My parents will still give me red envelopes. This time, I will receive them with greater understanding. Maybe one day I will pass them on too. There will be another decoration on the mantel, next to the dancing Santa and the traditional Chinese figurines. I don't know what this decoration will be yet. But I know that I will welcome it with the enthusiasm that December brings out in all of us. Because some traditions, and what they represent, should never fade.
There's always excitement when you see those family friends or cousins for the first or second time this year. You got to prepare for your whole year in one night. Christmas for Filipinos are very special, and coming to our houses for celebrations usually means four very important things: food, delicious food, karaoke, and family. Never forget to mano po bless your lolo grandpa or lola grandma by grabbing their hand and putting it on your forehead, or else it can be tried as a criminal offence!
Finding your age group will be key to having a great night — you don't want to be surrounded by toddlers running around every room, screaming their lungs off while you scrounge for a last-minute invite to your friend's party. Some would disagree, but cousin time is meant to enjoy each other's company, getting drunk over laughter, not alcohol. My suggestions range from playing Cards Against Humanity, trying new party games, or hogging the Xbox from the kids all night. Parents break off to see the host of the party, quenching their thirst with wine or beer.
Uncles are usually seen discussing basketball or Pacquiao away from the women, carrying a beer in one hand and barbeque tongs in the other. Aunts usually catch up after not seeing each other for awhile. At midnight, dessert and more food will miraculously reveal itself. You say good bye to 21, relatives, who end up talking at the entrance for another three hours. Luckily you have a week or more of parties still to come.
Do you have a special cultural holiday tradition? Share it with us by posting it on facebook. The whole time that I sat quietly at the back of the room, I felt like a fly on the wall in some secret club. The ability to hear the stories of what these women have had to endure in their careers, and still have to navigate because they are women, really made me take a step back. I suddenly found myself empathizing with a person I am usually so politically opposead to.
Because these same men address other male members of her cabinet by their correct official title. She loves it though, taking it in stride and using the subtle digs to motivate her. Not only is she a successful single mother, but she is also the longest serving female Premier in Canadian history. But I have gained a new appreciation for her, because she has shown me the massive divide that women face today and made me realize that the higher up you make it, does not guarantee you are immune to all forms of gender-based violence.
Vance was one of the first female sports broadcasters ever allowed into the. In one of her first visits, an incident occurred wherein a player who she did not name , decided to drop his towel and thrust his hips at her. As it turns out, this kind of behaviour is an ill-advised move when Trevor Linden is your captain. Captain Canuck got the attention of the entire team and then made it clear that Jody, and any other woman who photo: mat hylan entered that room henceforth, were to be treated with the utmost respect. An apology from the hip-thrusting player came swiftly.
Hearing some of these personal and intimate stories left me feeling a little uneasy, and at times, even a little guilty. I thought about times in my own life that I could have done something to help, but instead just stood there and let it happen. You do hear about this stuff, but I guess I never realized just how pervasive it is in the daily life of women— in their jobs, in public, even at home.
Throughout the conference I just kept thinking this conversation needs to be bigger and happen in a lot more places, especially with a misogynist pig about to become the most powerful man in the world. I used to scoff at Justin Trudeau calling himself a feminist, but now I get it. Men can be feminists, and in fact we need male feminists.
We need them to lead by example and show others that we take pride in the equal treatment of the other half of our population. We all know that when women are in positions of power and influence it has a positive influence on those around them. The time is now guys. Be the man who helps to empower women and be proud while doing it. Become known in your circle as the guy who puts women first. This is about changing the way we treat women in our society.
This week is different. My body is buzzing each morning and I find myself waking up at 3 or 4am, feeling anxious and confused. Before I can do anything else, I have to eat. For lack of better options, I heat my ginger tea from last night and pour it onto rice and kidney beans. Later in the week, I bought beans, pasta, an egg, and a little cup of pudding. Yesterday, I broke into a sweat calculating if I could afford two oranges. Realistically, most people on welfare get help from friends, family or food banks.
I heard about the challenge while working in a provincial government office last year. Many of my friends and neighbours live on social assistance. I chose to do the Challenge to show solidarity with my community and raise awareness of an unjust policy that keeps thousands of people in poverty every day.
Back at my apartment, I pack a bag of food for my shift at the hospital. They might be living with a toaster oven or hot plate, with no fridge to keep food from spoiling. I no longer have the energy to ride my bike, so I take the bus, and then walk a few blocks. The bag full of food feels heavier in my hand with each person I pass sleeping on the streets. I count seven figures: two in the doorway of a church. Some foods changed my mood entirely; from depression to elation, or manic energy to the need to just lie down and sleep.
I have enormous respect for those who struggle to live on government assistance. To those who are living on below-poverty wages — you deserve better. We will fight together for a BC in which no one is forced to go hungry. Also, this holiday season, consider donating to a food bank or volunteering for a Christmas dinner. Find your nearest food bank online: www. What inspires me most are the people around me that enrich my life. A film negative, with the light burned image, that you can see and touch, is something much more real than a digital file in my opinion.
With film, you slow down and try to create the story with the limited amount of shots you have. In the early morning of October 13, , while the American flagged tug Nathan E. Stewart was sailing South from Alaska, pushing an empty fuel barge ahead of her, something went wrong.
Like many tug and barge arrangements which work along the B. The barge of an ATB is notched on one end to accept the bow of a tug and when the tug noses into the notch, the two are mechanically coupled together. The Nathan E. Stewart ran her barge into the rocks, holed her hull, and sank. Her crew evacuated safely, but they could not prevent , litres of fuel and 2, litres of lubricants and hydraulic oils escaping from her tanks into the water. These waters support the traditional and still current food and income source for the Heiltsuk First Nation of Bella Bella. The crew of the lifeboat Cape St.
James was on the scene before the extent of the emergency was known and first responders floated oil absorbent booms in concentric rings around the sunken tug, createing a barrier in front of the clam bed beaches. Bad weather and a tumultuous sea state made containing the spill impossible with the resources on hand. The clam beds have since been closed pending the results of contamination studies. Soon after the spill, local photographers began documenting the response efforts as well as the harm to wildlife. The story was reported on both social and conventional media.
Finally, after the local government and the company which owns the tug had been working for weeks to contain the spill and raise the tug, the provincial and national governments came to Bella Bella to see for themselves. Since being elected in , BC Premier Christy Clark has been talking to Ottawa, working on a plan to put a better coastal emergency preparedness system in place.
Concerned citizens, mariners, and various levels of government have known for years that something like this could happen, and there have been a lot of close calls. A few weeks following the incident near Bella Bella, Prime Minister Trudeau arrived in Vancouver with his announcement of the Oceans Protection Plan, which had been in the works for months allready.
He and the his Minister of Transport, Marc Garneau, stood in front an assembly of uniformed service men and women at the HMCS Discovery in Stanley Park on a drippy Monday morning, addressing a small crowd and a bank of flashing cameras. I was able to attend the announcement and hear for myself Mr.
Although the Oceans Protection Plan addresses concerns on all three of the coasts, it was clear to me that Trudeau was thinking about. His plan also shifts more of the burden for prevention onto ship owners and increases the severity of the consequences should there be an incident. Save our Oceans. I asked him about the importance of maritime training to his community. The overall economy of B. It is absolutely essential that training be top of the line. A lot of good-paying jobs [in emergency preparedness and response] are going to outsiders.
Among the items sent to Ottawa by our Premier and the provincial Ministry of Environment, was the request for improved maritime training here in BC, with a special focus on training pilots and First Nations people. Consideration should be given to a dedicated labour force, with an emphasis on First Nations training.
Mariners need to have the best education available to ensure this stewardship is effective. I contacted B. I pointed out that the Premier had not answered my question in that statement. Could it mean that the request to support maritime education in B. We need our people trained here, and employed here. We are the ones who suffer when something goes wrong and we are the ones with the feeling of stewardship for our coast. As mariners on the coast Our elders always told us that we are stewards. We do feel a certain way about our coast one of the most beautiful in the world , and that makes us uniquely motivated to be the stewards of its protection.
That is why me must insist that training is not a point of negotiation. You have no phone, no Internet and none of your friends know where you have disappeared to. The reason? Your parents refuse to accept your choice to identify as non-binary neither male nor female , because for them, you were born female and that is how it should be. Now imagine having to go to court to fight for your own freedom and and a chance to go back to college and reclaim your identity.
Escaping Agra is a documentary film that follows the life of Naveen Bhat as they battle with their family to get back to the U. S, where they are currently studying. I sat down with director Pallavi Somusetty, to find out more about her film. Escaping Agra is a twenty-three minute documentary about Naveen Bhat, who is trapped in India after his parents find out about his gender and sexual orientation.
The film shows their journey to battle them in court and piece their life back together. The film wrestles with important themes, including familial support, gender and sexual orientation, Indian and Western cultures, post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD and young love. How did the idea of Escaping Agra come about? I first got in touch with Naveen after watching their plea on YouTube. They were seeking assistance to get home to California, after escaping their family home in Agra.
I wanted to help Naveen get home, and reached out to offer support and see if they'd be interested in telling the story on camera.
I was thinking about going to India while Naveen was there, and follow them back home. By the time Naveen responded, the Delhi High Court judge in India had already ruled in their case, and they were back in California. We met for coffee and Escaping Agra bloomed from that initial conversation. Do you think cultural heritage has something to do with how the LGBTQ community is seen across the world? Would Indian parents view this differently compared to their western counterparts?
In the South Asian community I grew up in, we were always threatened about getting sent to India if we misbehaved. We never thought it would happen to us, but the threat always loomed. And yet it does happen! It happened to Naveen, and it actually happened to me, too. When I was a young teenager, my parents took away my return ticket during a summer vacation in India. I spent a couple of years there, though I never experienced the level of abuse or homophobia that Naveen did.
My experience could not be characterized as an international hostage situation, as I would say about Naveen, because they were an adult at the time of their experience. I have no regrets about my own life and the way that it turned out, and I'm not angry about what happened to me. In fact, I became so close to my cousins that I consider them to be my sisters now. And I was a minor and my parents had every right to send me to India. But I think there's a part of me that has always wanted to document some aspect of getting sent back to the motherland, whether it's the rejection that the person feels when they are in India and their family stays behind in the country they immigrated to, or the culture shock they experience, or the transformation that occurs.
What happened to Naveen is so much worse than getting sent away for bad grades. Working on Escaping Agra felt deeply personal to me because of my own experience. What insight does the documentary provide about Naveen in particular? I hope the film conveys that trauma is not something that survivors can just get over easily, but that these types of abusive experiences can stay with you for the long haul.
My personal takeaway from the documentary is that Naveen was cheated of a family that loved and accepted him unconditionally, but maybe family is not just determined by blood. Could you enlighten us about the concept of binary? What about the parents? What role do they play in the lives of these youngsters? They hold such power. The consequences of not doing so are dire; in the film you see that Naveen continues to suffer from the trauma of their past at the hands of their family. There are statistics saying that trans and gender nonconforming people are 10 times more likely to attempt suicide than the general population.
As a mother, if my child were to come to me about something like this, I hope that I would keep my child's health, safety and happiness at the forefront of my mind as we begin those conversations. Instead of parents thinking about their dreams and wishes for their children, let the children share their own dreams with their parents. Will our society ever reach a point where "gender" would cease to be a category to differentiate people from each other?
I hope it ceases to be a category that causes people to withhold basic human rights from others. You are a student director. Were there some challenges? Filming any documentary is a challenging endeavor. I wanted to understand where they were coming from.
Finally, tell us what happened to Naveen. We want to know how and when they finally escaped Agra. Naveen flew home to California and is attending school. I think the PTSD from this experience has probably been a real challenge for Naveen but you should confirm with them. Interested in what you just read and want to know even more? Head over to www.
So we sat around the kitchen, nibbling on these delicious treats, and got to know each other a little better. How'd you get into baking? Well, it started in high school cooking classes. Shining appliances, beautiful artwork, and jars of various ingredients are all a part of the environment that inspires Max. How did that transition into pastries and confections?
They made me pastry cook, and within four months, they made me pastry chef. I was there for a year and a half, and then they brought me to the other restaurant. I did everything, I was sous chef, pastry chef, catering. What made you want to start your own business? After working long hours for so many years in the restaurants, I sort of fell out of love with it. So this was me trying to do it in my own time, do what I love, and just try to love it again. Have you had any challenges?
I started in April, and then I got accepted to school, so that was a challenge. No time! What makes a successful entrepreneur? Definitely networking. Knowing your value, and portraying that to the people that you network with. What made you want to go to BCIT? My brother and two of his best friends also went to the program.
One was in the Communications option, one was in [the entrepreneurship] option. They did warn me! What made you want to get involved at BCIT? Coming from cooking, you know that schoolwork is not all that matters. Set myself apart from the other people in my program. Just trying to mesh everything that I love. Do you have a favourite flavour of chocolate? It has to be passionfruit habanero. My mom's friend is from Panama. She gave me a jar of passionfruit jam, and it had a little bit of habanero in it.
It was just so good, so I tried to recreate that. Definitely Red Velvet. Trust us, they are absolutely delicious. Their eyes were wide with horror, mouths contorted into garbled screams as the fire slowly crept its way across the room. The living were already mourning the dead; faces buried in their hands as they grieved, knowing they will soon face the same fate. They wailed, they begged, they reached out for me: their god, their puppet master, their all-seeing prophet.
I could have saved them. I should have saved them, but I just couldn't bring myself to exit the saved file. As a long time Simmer, I can assure you that everybody starts out with good intentions. We build a house, we create a nice family to fill that house, we get them good jobs and we send the kids to school. They make friends, make babies, and maybe those babies will have more babies. But that one inevitable day will come. The day that we get bored.
Her name was Victoria Underwood. She had dark auburn hair, piercing green eyes, and curves in all the right places. She was mysterious, alluring, and very evil. One afternoon, she ran into a man at the local coffee shop. His name was Bjorn Bjergsen. Though a married man with a good heart, Bjorn could not resist the temptation of the seductress. She burst into tears and alternated between slapping him in the face and shouting obscenities in Simlish [ed.
We have two kids together! It was too clouded with his love for Victoria, who stood by, smiling smugly as she watched Bjorn divorce his wife on the spot. Bjorn, while deeply in love with his new woman, grieved for the loss of his marriage, and eventually lost his job because he was too depressed to go to work. However, it proved much more difficult than I had planned. The first daughter, Elsa, took three full Sim days to perish in the backyard pool.
She was effectively fenced into her doom. Her energy bar ticked slowly into the red, and soon enough, her little body gave out.
It floated to the top of the pool, just as her father entered the backyard. He fell into hysterics, flailing his arms about and begging for the Grim Reaper to not take her soul. But alas, she was gone. The house was plunged into a black sadness for several days. She would inexplicably burst into fire going about her day, but would immediately be extinguished by her watchful mother. I started to get frustrated. I ran the cheat code another time, but this time, locked the door to her bedroom.
She was sitting on her bed when she exploded into flames. Her mother, horrified and utterly helpless, wailed on the other side of the door as her daughter slowly disappeared from the user interface. I removed my. I felt miserable. I satisfied my need for blood, but at what cost? The Bjergsen's were no more. The parents had become empty shells, bursting into tears at random intervals throughout the day. Victoria kicked them both out of the house, renovated it, and got herself two young boyfriends.
Bjorn ended up marrying his maid and had three more children. Clara continued her career as a caterer, but she was never the same again.
To create a life, then wipe it from existence. To laugh maniacally when they get stuck between a couch and the wall. We excluded: poetry, scientific books and research, travel diaries, memoirs, historical books, pedagogical books, cooking and housekeeping books, spiritual books, books about manners, business books, books on how to build relationships, medical books, engineering books. Books that were presented as autobiographical, memoirs, or true accounts of historical events, were also excluded.
Only works precisely dated to the year were considered. Because of their peculiarity, and also to be consistent with other published work Morin et al. However, given the great number of such works in the corpus, we were not entirely successful, and realised after a first wave of data collection that many such works had been collected. These are explicitly signalled. We ended up with books of which are books written for children , written by authors, between and All analyses were carried out in R version 3.
We built a series of linear mixed effects models using the lme4 package in R—Bates et al. Each model tried to predict the proportion of words in the word list of interest present in the documents. For all three variables of interest, a substantial amount of variation was linked to the two categories of documents contained within each corpus. Documents with richer vocabulary are more likely to include words related to natural death. Overall, natural death-related terms were not markedly more frequent in fictional documents, as predicted Fig. The frequency of words related to natural or agentive deaths, in four types of documents.
The frequency of words related to natural death in diary entries on the far right is partially inflated, because diary entries, being shorter, have richer vocabularies relative to their length. The fact that our word list for words related to natural death contains more words than the one for agentive death 81 does not explain away the difference between the two proportions. Even when controlling for this, words related to natural death are still much more frequent than words related to agentive death in all four types of documents.
No control variable was found to make the model more informative. In other words, being a novel as opposed to a private document made the occurrence of words related to agentive death slightly less probable, contrary to our prediction. Our main prediction was thus refuted. This was not the case for the other two word lists. Our impression, however, is that death-related vocabulary substantially correlates with actual mentions of death. He found that, in more than three quarters of cases, such words did refer to actual executions, killers, wars, etc.
They were not used as part of a set phrase, nor did they relate to a death that the author had read about in the newspaper, or in a novel. Pennebaker et al. Our results thus tend to support the view that death-related themes are about as prevalent in private letters or diaries as they are in fiction. This is surprising, and not simply because it contradicts our hypothesis. Novels, after all, are commercial products.
Assuming that death-related information appeals to most readers, we would expect professional novelists to emphasise it in their commercial productions. Here, they do not seem to. Like those of Study 1, the results of this study apply to one particular culture only—American culture, chosen for reasons of data availability and to maintain consistency with Study 1.
Although most students of the topic seem to agree that agentive death also has appeal in other cultural traditions Scalise Sugiyama, ; Boyer and Parren, , more work would be needed to generalise our findings. Theories of narrative fiction since Aristotle Poetics , Aristotle grapple with two slightly contradictory facts. On the one end, fiction is a form of pretence that can reach a high degree of realism.
In itself, a fictional narrative bears no indication of its own untruth Goodman, , and many fictions are quite believable. On the other hand, even the most realistic fictions depict dramatic events that most of us hardly ever have to go through. Fiction, in other words, is a believable depiction of unbelievably strange events. The classic solution to this puzzle sees fiction as an instrument made to generate a vicarious experience: a simulation.
Examples include deadly aggressions by predators or humans, or decisions on long-term matrimonial commitments. Experience does not prepare us well for these rare, high-stakes occasions, in contrast with situations that are just as fitness-relevant but occur more frequently e. This hypothesis differs from the view that fiction should prepare us for social life, for threats or dangers in general, or for any and all fitness-relevant events.
It accounts for several aspects of the psychology of fiction that would otherwise remain puzzling.
It explains the prominence of narrative fiction over other kinds of verbal fictions: the fact that most verbal fiction concentrates upon the goal-directed actions of intentional beings Propp, ; Bruner, No doubt experimental poetry featuring descriptions of empty imaginary landscapes, imaginary fruits and vegetables, alternative laws of physics, etc. The hypothesis explains why sex and murder are more central to fiction more than they are to reality, which is not the case for other biologically important activities like food procurement or gestation.
It accounts for the similarities between play, dreams, and fiction. Moreover, it explains why people die in novels, in the specific ways that they do: fiction emphasises not merely mortality, but agentive mortality specifically. Explanatory adequacy does not make a theory true, however. The ordeal simulation hypothesis is not specific enough to make unique true predictions concerning the prominence of violent deaths in fictional narratives as distinct from non-fictional texts. Other hypotheses, bearing not on fiction but more generally on socially acquired information, also predict that accounts of agentive deaths are more prominent even in non-fictional material, for two reasons: the relevance of danger-related information in general Fessler et al.
We found no evidence for a specific differentiation in mentions of agentive death for novels as compared to private documents. Mortality, both agentive and non-agentive, seems as relevant for non-fiction as it is for fiction. No single theory seems able to explain what could make death-related themes so prevalent both in fictional and non-fictional material. Theorists trying to account for the cultural appeal of negative content claim that threat-related information is more believable for three main reasons Fessler, ; Blaine and Boyer, The second is a matter of evidence asymmetry: negative evidence for the absence of a threat is less easily encountered than positive cues.
Tellingly, each of these explanations applies to the credence that we attach to information concerning real-world dangers. They are not meant to explain the appeal of fictional dangers, which in the case of novels at least no one ever takes seriously as real possibilities. Moreover, as we saw, a fictional context does not render gruesome events any less interesting.
As argued by several authors McCauley, ; Tooby and Cosmides, , the opposite is more likely. In a fictional context, we enjoy events that, considered as real possibilities, repulse us. Our search for a specific signature of fictional content remains nonetheless uncompleted. This in itself does not suffice to refute the ordeal simulation hypothesis, or the more general view that fictions are adaptive simulations; but it does call for more theoretical work specifying the kind of content that an adaptive simulation device should focus on.
More generally, it underscores the need for any adaptationist theory of fiction to come up with precise predictions focusing specifically on fiction as opposed to other kinds of speech or writing. Until this is done, discussions debating whether fiction, as distinct from other kinds of verbal productions, is rooted in an adaptation or emerges as a by-product of other cognitive activities Pinker, ; Mellmann, are likely to stall. A considerable amount of work has been done to quantify the various kinds of violence in mass media productions Colman et al.
We investigate novel summaries, because they allow us to gather data much more efficiently than the coding of complete works, be they movies or texts. Second, we are specifically interested in comparing mortality rates in fiction and in the real-world—we are not primarily interested in measuring the amount of violence that novels expose their readers to. Aristotle Poetics.
Penguin, London. Barrett HC Adaptations to predators and prey. In: The handbook of evolutionary psychology. American Cancer Society, pp. Rev Gen Psychol 5 4 — Evol Hum Behav 38 1 — Blaine T, Boyer P Origins of sinister rumors: A preference for threat-related material in the supply and demand of information. Evol Hum Behav 39 1 — Boyd B On the origin of stories. Behav Brain Sci 29 6 — Boyer P, Parren N Threat-related information suggests competence: a possible factor in the spread of rumors. Brown D Human universals.
Bruner J Life as narrative. Soc Res 71 3 — Nat Hum Behav 2 9 Carroll J Reading human nature: Literary Darwinism in theory and practice. PC Biocultural theory: The current state of knowledge. Evolut Behav Sci 11 1 BMJ December :g Conroy P The prince of tides, Reprint edition. Dissanayake E An ethological view of ritual and art in human evolutionary history. Leonardo 12 1 — World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, pp. Fry DP Play aggression among zapotec children: implications for the practice hypothesis.
Aggress Behav 16 5 — Global Burden of Disease Collaborative Network. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Goodman N Ways of worldmaking. Gottschall J The storytelling animal: How stories make us human. Mariner Books, Boston. Science — Narrat Inq 28 1 — Lancy DF Play in species adaptation. Annu Rev Anthropol — Mar RA, Oatley K The function of fiction is the abstraction and simulation of social experience. Perspect Psychol Sci 3 3 — J Child Lang 44 5 — McCauley C When screen violence is not attractive. In: Goldstein Jeffrey ed. Why we watch: the attractions of violent entertainment.
Mellmann K Is storytelling a biological adaptation? Preliminary thoughts on how to pose that question.
De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. Br J Psychol 97 3 — Morin O, Acerbi A Birth of the cool: a two-centuries decline in emotional expression in Anglophone fiction. Cognition and Emotion 31 8 — Nesse RM The smoke detector principle. Nettle D a The wheel of fire and the mating game: explaining the origins of tragedy and comedy. J Cult Evolut Psychol — Nettle D b What happens in Hamlet? Exploring the psychological foundations of drama. Oatley K Such stuff as dreams: the psychology of fiction. J Broadcast Electron Media 38 2 University of Texas, Austin.
Annu Rev Psychol 54 1 — Child Dev 67 4 — Piaget J Play, dreams and imitation in childhood. Psychology Press, London. Pinker S How the mind works. Pinker S Toward a consilient study of literature Review of J. Philos Lit — Propp V Morphology of the folktale. University of Texas Press, Houston. Revonsuo A The reinterpretation of dreams: an evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming.
Behav Brain Sci 23 6 — Revonsuo AK, Valli K Dreaming and consciousness: Testing the threat simulation theory of the function of dreaming. Psyche 6 8 , no pagination provided. Scalise Sugiyama M Food, foragers, and folklore: The role of narrative in human subsistence. Evol Hum Behav 22 4 — Br J Psychol 2 — Symons D Play and aggression: A study of rhesus monkeys. JAMA 5 — Tooby J, Cosmides L Does beauty build adapted minds? Substance 30 1 :6— In: The World Health Report changing history.
World Health Organisation, Geneva. JAMA 20 — Conscious Cogn 15 2 — Zunshine L Why we read fiction: Theory of mind and the novel. Ohio State University Press, Columbus. Download references. Correspondence to Olivier Morin. Reprints and Permissions. Advanced search. Skip to main content.
Article metrics Citations 0. Altmetric More details Article metrics. Download PDF. Subjects Cultural and media studies Literature. Abstract What is fiction about, and what is it good for? Introduction What is fiction about, and what is it good for? The ordeal simulation hypothesis This hypothesis starts from the assumption that simulation is a useful way to prepare for some kinds of threats, but not for all threats. Overview We tested the ordeal simulation hypothesis in two studies. Study 1: The Ultimate Spoiler: Mortality and causes of death in novels This study Footnote 1 considers three types of mortality—natural, agentive, and accidental—as they occur in the real-world statistics of twentieth century USA, and in the plots of novels produced in the USA in the twentieth century, as studied through Wikipedia summaries.
Methods Selection of novel summaries Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, was searched manually between March and June for suitable summaries of twentieth century novels. Our selection criteria excluded the following: Novels not written by an American citizen writing in the English language. Unfinished novels or short stories compilations. Coding the summaries Each summary was coded to obtain the number of characters in the novel, as well as the number of characters dying in some way during the period of time covered by the plot.
Results Death rates in novels vs. Table 1 Mortality rates, expressed as one death per , individuals for a given year, for various causes of death Full size table. Table 2 The share of several causes of death, relative to the total number of deaths, in real-world data compared to novel summaries Full size table. Discussion The data just described may not surprise a regular consumer of novels.
Study 2: Ordeal simulation or social relevance? Mentions of death in private documents The ordeal simulation hypothesis is meant to explain the content of narrative fiction as distinct from other kinds of verbal productions. We went by the following inclusion criteria: The books were written by women. All co-authored books were discarded. Results All analyses were carried out in R version 3. Full size image. General discussion Theories of narrative fiction since Aristotle Poetics , Aristotle grapple with two slightly contradictory facts.
References Aristotle Poetics. University of Texas Press, Houston Revonsuo A The reinterpretation of dreams: an evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Supplementary information Supplementary Materials. About this article. Palgrave Communications menu.