mastervirt.lvlup.gr/love-divine-all-loves-excelling.php Scientific consideration of subjective emotional states in AW has been disregarded since these are difficult to identify and quantify [ 32 , 37 ]. However, active promotion of positive feelings, such as pleasure and contentment, plays a primary role in assuring good welfare status [ 8 , 41 ] provided that this is determined from an overall balance of experiences.
Addressing only the negative emotions and states will not necessarily give rise to positive ones but will merely serve to achieve a neutral situation [ 10 , 40 ]. Animals have a wide range of needs, which must be always met appropriately according to each species and based on scientific principles, so as to minimize negative welfare states while promoting positive ones [ 10 ]. Failure or difficulty to cope with the environment occurs together with the presence of negative emotional states suffering and subjective experiences, and it represents a state of poor welfare, from a holistic view of well-being [ 12 , 42 ].
Animals seek to control interactions with their environment and avoid unpleasant stimuli. When unable to do so, and simultaneously denied resources they are very strongly motivated to obtain, they will achieve a distressful state of frustration and anxiety [ 10 , 43 ]. It can lead to a variety of short and long term responses characterized by a range of physiological abnormalities i. It is therefore essential to provide animals with productive environments that reward them with fresh challenges, opportunities and choices over time which allow them to express innate behavior and control interactions with their surroundings [ 8 , 10 ].
Despite the whole concept of AW involving moral values and judgments about our obligations to the animals under our care, it is only after scientific evidence on welfare assessment has been obtained that ethical questions and decisions are ought to be taken [ 8 , 12 ]. Qualitative and quantitative scientific methods for determining acceptable high standards of AW are complex and multi-disciplinary [ 32 ] and involve indirect by taking into consideration the animal needs and direct measurement of variables, both conducted through observation and experimentation.
Some physiological indices cannot be obtained safely in non-trained zoo animals without the use of anesthesia or sedatives e. Alternatively, other internal parameters can be collected noninvasively, for example, measuring reproductive or stress hormones and their metabolites in urine or feces e. Although efforts should be made to include the importance of both positive pleasure, contempt and negative feelings or sensations suffering, fear, pain in the assessment of AW, these imply complex brain constructs and functioning mechanisms which are not easy to evaluate in a fully objective way [ 8 ].
Dawkins [ 43 ] argues that animal welfare should be assessed by answering two essential questions: 1 Are the animals healthy?
The way an animal responds to given opportunities in its environment offers valuable information about its emotional state and motivation, and helps to determine a particular hierarchy of needs [ 40 , 45 ]. Animal welfare is considered to be a scientific branch of applied animal behavior and may be measured through behavioral assessment [ 46 ]. Behavior assessment through applied behavior analysis and behavioral monitoring studies is a technique that has several benefits supporting optimal animal care, making it essential to improve animal welfare and to meet conservation goals.
These studies have emphasis on scientific data collection through direct and objective observation of measurable behavior as well as the circumstances under which they occur, and concern the functional relationships between environment and expressions of behavior [ 43 , 48 ]. Systematic observations and record keeping have numerous advantages as a management tool in zoos and other related facilities: they represent a non-invasive and, in the majority of cases, a non-intrusive technique [ 43 ] that allows documentation of normal behavior patterns and identification of any changes on regular activity, establishing a database of background information on individuals on a consistent basis [ 48 ].
The History of enrichment starts in the s with Robert Mearns Yerkes [ 49 ], a psychobiologist best known for his work in intelligence testing of both humans and primates and his writings about the importance of enrichment for gorillas and chimpanzees in captivity [ 50 ]. The American psychologist and behaviorist Skinner had strong implications on enrichment as well.
He used operant conditioning to strengthen behavior, created the principles of reinforcement and introduced the process of shaping, techniques that are still used today in many animal training husbandry and medical procedures, and represent a gold standard for dealing with behavioral problems in a variety of settings [ 50 ].
He also reported sterile environments causing animals to engage in repetitive behaviors [ 49 ]. There have been tremendous improvements regarding animal care and captive settings throughout recent years. Replication of wild conditions and stimulation of wild biological repertoires in captive animals have been a long term conservational goal for many zoological institutions. This way, behavioral enrichment programs have become an accepted practice whose most generic priority is addressing and reducing undesirable behaviors [ 53 , 54 ].
Behavioral enrichment, also known as environmental enrichment, is currently a principle of animal husbandry that has been scientifically proofed to be beneficial [ 10 , 19 ].
The aims of behavioral enrichment can be achieved by creating productive environments which encourage each animal to express the natural mental activities and behavioral repertoire of the species, and by adding stimulus that offer complexity and novelty to its routine as well as opportunities that enable it to restore the sense of control it should have over its environment [ 55 ].
For an enrichment program to succeed, it is very important that it is methodically planned in accordance with its objectives and desired outcomes, otherwise it may be more harmful than beneficial [ 19 ]. The foundation and logistics of a successful, goal-orientated and self-sustained program can be outlined through AZA reviewed guidelines and protocols so as to represent a master plan from goal setting to re-adjustment, addressing safety issues, providing and keeping up-to-date resources [ 55 ]. All animal care staff members and all the professional sectors in the zoological institutions must be involved in the development of an animal enrichment program, as each one plays a critical role in its success [ 19 , 56 ].
These programs provide species with appropriate challenges, opportunities and stimulation for all taxa [ 10 , 56 ].
R is an acronym for the first letter of each component of the framework [ 57 ], as follows: setting goals; planning; implementation; documenting; evaluation; re-adjustment. The last component of the framework actually takes place during all the process of development of an enrichment plan [ 56 ]. The goals of a plan are regularly re-adjusted and enrichment activities refined, improved or discontinued to increase effectiveness of a strategy, which may, at some point, be started over again [ 55 ].
Sensory enrichment refers to the five perceptual senses of sight, smell, hearing, taste and touch [ 19 ]. Olfactory stimulation is of the main importance in behavioral enrichment as many species use olfactory signalment to communicate with intra and inter specifics as well as to maintain their territories. They are also driven by their sense of smell to locate prey, reproductive mates or food [ 54 , 58 ]. Olfactory enrichment may include addition of scented material and both packaged and natural odors [ 33 , 59 , 60 ].
The value of auditory stimulation to the well-being of animals is still controversial in the literature. It is important to bear in mind that the addition of extra noise to environments which can be pretty loud themselves may also have a negative impact in their dwellers, including hearing impairment and communication disconcert between animals [ 9 , 13 ]. In some cases, the most significant aspect regarding acoustic stimulation so far, may be the overall reduction of the ambient noise [ 13 ]. Visual means of enriching the captive environment of animals may include addition of mirrors, moving toys, televisions or other computer-assisted equipment as well as simply allowing the sight of activities outside the enclosure or of a prey [ 13 , 19 ].
Captivity, on the other hand, provides animals with a more limited selection of food types, usually processed diets that are dispensed in highly predicted locations, at fixed feeding times, and in an easily consumed form which does not require natural foraging tactics [ 9 , 62 ]. Feeding animals through more versatile and natural ways is one of the most widely used enrichment techniques [ 63 ]. Structural enrichment highlights the utmost importance of the quality of the space available in overcoming space restrictions [ 9 , 52 ].
Three birds from the Belo Horizonte Zoo, Brazil were studied. Abnormal behaviours; Environmental enrichment; Rhea; Stress; Zoo animal welfare The rheas were fed twice a day at h and h with a mixture of. Summary: The history of zoo animal welfare legislation extends back to , . goals, focussing on ecosystem and species survival (10,14,15,26,48). Where.
A revolution in zoo enclosure design has led to a proliferation of more naturalistic exhibits which replicate as closely as possible the wild habitat of the species concerned [ 23 , 52 ]. These exhibits are also functionally evaluated with the priority of creating stimulating and appropriate captive environments according to the specific behaviors and biological needs of each species [ 55 ]. Social enrichment involves all forms of social interactions provided direct or indirectly by conspecifics, humans and other species of animals, through physical contact, verbal communication or even olfactory signalment [ 56 ].
Many studies instigate the importance of housing appropriate social groupings in the welfare of captive animals [ 64 , 65 ]. Training, based on both classical and operant conditioning principles is a revolutionary way of intellectually challenging the everyday routine of captive animals while managing them to comply with basic husbandry tasks or medical procedures without being forced to do so [ 61 ].
Enrichment in its most varied forms elicits investigatory, foraging or marking behavior, social interaction, and creative play.
It also provides shade and privacy through hiding places or escape routes, leading to a more efficient use of space [ 9 , 61 ]. However, the results of every approach will depend on intrinsic factors such as species, age, sex and individual personality [ 13 ]. However, enrichment will not only be beneficial for the animals but for the general public as well. Veterinarians are irrevocable generalists, which makes them proficient in the holistic approach of disease dynamics.
They have not only a broad education in comparative medicine not a single-species focus but also in many specialties such as surgery, clinical medicine, anesthesiology, epidemiology, nutrition, pathology, toxicology, theriogenology and behavior. This makes them excellent at understanding both mental and physical needs of an animal, and how well adapted it is to its environment [ 3 , 15 ].
Wildlife vets are also highly trained in recognizing, diagnosing and understanding disease impact on public health as well as on individuals, populations and whole ecosystems; and, in choosing the most advisable preventive and therapeutic options on a case by case basis [ 14 , 15 ]. Their ubiquitous knowledge, skills and expertise therefore turns them into valuable key players in planning, implementing and effectively assisting both in-situ and ex-situ conservation projects [ 2 ].
As a result, deep collaboration between veterinarians and professionals of other scientific fields such as applied biomedics, epidemiology, ecology, biology and evolutionary genetics, is becoming positively accepted as a new way of integrating health sciences into conservation [ 2 , 15 ] thus defining Conservation Medicine. The authors wish to thank Dr. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Catrin Sian Rutland. Edited by Bishnu Pal. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books.
Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Abstract The enhanced role of human actions brings new escalating conservation challenges and emerging diseases, which pressure impaired long-term survival of threatened free-ranging and captive wildlife species, while having hazardous effects on ecosystems and public health.
The NhRP lawyers, it would seem, are hoping for better luck with elephants. The respondent in this case is James J.
Wise, founder and president of the NhRP, said in a statement. Sadly, this is not the first time that Happy has made the news. Happy was born in the wild and brought to the United States when she was still an infant. In , at the age of 30 and for her own safety, Happy was isolated from elephants Patty and Maxine, the latter of which was coincidentally euthanized this week.
So for the past 12 years, Happy the misnamed elephant has lived alone—a situation the NhRP deems untenable for a highly social species. Her autonomy is thwarted daily. This has got to stop.
Earlier this year, as the State of New York Court of Appeals upheld the ruling of an intermediate appellate court , one of the appeals court judges, Eugene Fahey, issued a provocative concurring opinion. That question, one of precise moral and legal status, is the one that matters here. It speaks to our relationship with all the life around us. Ultimately, we will not be able to ignore it.
Wesley J. Kerry Bowman, a bioethicist at the University of Toronto, said this latest case is indicative of a larger trend. Yet justice and compassion lie at the heart of human rights; by judiciously extending rights in a case like this, we in turn deepen human rights.